Alternatives to imprisonment are disciplinary or alternative treatments for offenders that do not include incarceration in a prison or jail, either at the time of sentence or in reaction to non-compliance by an individual currently undergoing supervised release. Alternative options to incarceration in California include split sentences, which is a type of sentencing in which a judge can impose a county prison sentence accompanied by community monitoring (U.S department of justice, n.d.). The split sentence is intended to reduce demand for jail and prison space while also organizing and overseeing offenders’ reintegration into the community by enabling rehabilitation to begin during the offenders’ jail time and continued rehabilitation while in society (U.S department of justice, n.d.). Another option created by realignment is flash imprisonment, which provides county probationary administrations with a middle-ground sentence for those on PRCS or compulsory monitoring (Grattet & Martin, 2015). Instead of withdrawing supervision or prosecuting violators with additional offenses, a department might send them to a county or city jail for one to 10 days. Flash imprisonment allows counties to respond promptly to infractions without jeopardizing offender readmission by imposing lengthy terms; it also reduces the usage of jail resources.
The alternatives are not just mere enhancements but permanent alternatives to incarceration. While there is a lot of pressure to discover viable solutions to incarceration because of overcrowding and expense, there are also a lot of issues regarding how successful incarceration is at reducing crime (Grattet & Martin, 2015). A few studies demonstrate that those held in custody have better outcomes, although with minimal impacts. Several studies demonstrate that jailed criminals have poorer rehabilitation results, albeit this is less obvious in research that makes substantial adjustments for diverse types of offenders. Considering that incarceration is far more expensive than community-based penalties, expanding the use of community-based punishments can save money while not necessarily increasing readmission.
Speedy Intervention and Intensive Supervision is a community-based technique placed for criminals who may have been sentenced to prison or jail under strict monitoring. The initiative was part of the motivation for California’s policy of “flash incarceration,” which entails throwing grossly negligent criminals in jail for up to 10 days rather than attempting to revoke parole and send them to jail for a longer-term (Shouse, 2021). Targeted services entail services tailored to individual needs, which could be educational, vocational, emotional regulation, drug addiction, mental health, and cognitive behavioral therapy programs, to name a few, which have been studied extensively to prevent readmission (Shouse, 2021). Evidence indicates that services based on the “Risk, Need, and High sensitivity” paradigm are particularly beneficial. This subcategory of programs uses actuarial risk and needs instruments to target treatments to offenders who are most likely to re-offend, focusing primarily on addressing evaluated “causes of crime.”
Education, psychological counseling, drug abuse rehabilitation, vocational training, counseling services, and mentorship are some of the institutional programs used to prepare criminals for re-entry into society (Social Solutions, 2018). When these programs are based on a thorough diagnosis and assessment of offenders, they are more effective. Community-based agencies prepared to provide after-care and follow-up with offenders following their release from incarceration implement some of these programs before their release (Social Solutions, 2018). Effective institutional programs tend to focus on various dynamic risk factors and offenders’ problems or needs that must be addressed to prepare the offender for release and effective reintegration.
Alternatives to imprisonment in California can be extended, which is an important policy topic (Grattet & Martin, 2015). According to research, California could reduce its use of custody-based punishment by implementing carefully designed policies and programs that use community-based alternatives for all or part of low-risk offenders’ sentences; use swift and certain sanctions to deter noncompliance among those offenders; and provide services based on risk, need, and responsively (Grattet & Martin, 2015). The problem is that these initiatives are difficult to put into place. Policymakers and academics may benefit from a critical component of California’s community corrections system, which encourages counties to try new approaches to criminal justice.
Grattet, R., & Martin, B. (2015). Alternatives to Incarceration in California.
Shouse, N. (2021). Alternatives To Prison Sentencing – Categories.
U.S department of justice. (n.d.). Sourcebook on Alternatives to Prison in California. Office of Justice Programs.