Victimology: Types of Violence and Victimization

Victims of Interpersonal Violence

Interpersonal violence is one of the most spread problems in many societies, and it can be categorized into specific groups. For example, according to Catalano (2013), sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault are the most common types of violence from boyfriends, girlfriends, or spouses. Moreover, more females are assaulted than males, but in most cases, the violence is not severe. With the increase in the general level of education from 1994 to 2011, the percentage of serious violence has decreased by 72% for females and 64% for males (Catalano, 2013). However, the problem is continuing being massive, and homicide victims occur in many relationships. Long partnering provokes more males to commit a crime, and violence usually happens when females know their abuser for a long time. Even though the violence in partnership is related to hitting and slapping, there are 4% of cases when weapons were used (Catalano, 2013). The percentage stays the same over time, and no significant improvements can be seen.

Intimate Partner Violence

Intimate partner violence is closely related to interpersonal violence because people spend a lot of time together, and similar problems may lead people to commit crimes. It is problematic to calculate an accurate number of domestic violence cases because many situations do not have weighty arguments, or victims do not attend the courts in 33% (Taylor-Dunn, 2015). However, in the case of court attendance, almost all offenders were guilty of the committed domestic violence. When violence from an intimate partner is conducted, the IDVA safety plan protects women and children as they become victims in most cases (Taylor-Dunn, 2015). Non-judicial crime is covered by this plan which provides psychological support to those who were potentially assaulted and helped to get out of toxic.

Sexual Victimization

Sexual victimization is one of the most common problems which cannot be solved in many locations of the world due to poverty and low level of education. However, compared to simple assaults, sexual violence can be documented and reported to the police to ensure that the offender receive sentence (Brooks & Burman, 2016). Even though it is believed in many communities that, in most cases, women are victims of sexual abuse, it is important to protect men and pay attention to possible cases which might include women as offenders. Advocating organizations in the European Union play a crucial role in this aspect as they conduct their independent research when the issues occur to give valuable evidence to the court, which makes a final decision. For sexually abused women, the European Parliament has provided a network called Women Against Violence Europe (WAVE) which protects females and children in Europe (Brooks & Burman, 2016). This movement promotes policies and protection plans specifically for rape cases.

Victimization of Children

Even though children are protected in making social plans when violence occurs, they can also receive support from organizations that cope with children’s problems. Most young people experience assault during their school years (Finkelhor et al., 2005). However, such factors as poverty, maltreatment, and raping also occur in lives of kinds. Indirect violence is insignificant and has only 29% of all child abuse worldwide (Finkelhor et al., 2005). Many psychological problems come from childhood, and volunteering organizations need to grow a mentally stable society for the planet’s future. Consequently, children are always provided with support at school and during their extracurricular activities to ensure that they are not subjected to violence from parents or peers.


Brooks, O., & Burman, M. (2016). Reporting rape: Victim perspectives on advocacy support in the criminal justice process. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 17(2).

Catalano, S. (2013). Intimate partner violence: Attributes of victimization, 1993-2011. Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1-18. Web.

Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. L. (2005). The victimization of children and youth: A comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 10(1).

Taylor-Dunn, H. (2015). The impact of victim advocacy on the prosecution of domestic violence offences: Lessons from a realistic evaluation. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 16(1).

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LawBirdie. (2023) 'Victimology: Types of Violence and Victimization'. 29 August.


LawBirdie. 2023. "Victimology: Types of Violence and Victimization." August 29, 2023.

1. LawBirdie. "Victimology: Types of Violence and Victimization." August 29, 2023.


LawBirdie. "Victimology: Types of Violence and Victimization." August 29, 2023.