How political white collar crime differs from state crime or state-organized crime
In order to find out how exactly white-collar crime may differ from such crimes as stage organized or state, it is crucially important to clear up the meanings of each of the above-mentioned crimes and pay attention to each detail in these interpretations.
White-collar crime is defined as any crime that is committed by people of respectability or with high social status within their spheres of occupation. These are frauds, briberies, computer crimes, pension fund crimes, etc. State crimes are such criminal activities, which cause breaking criminal or public international law of any state. In this case, the state should be defined as an official or an organization with the governmental apparatus. Finally, state-organized crime is another type of activity when members of one organization break their own laws, settle within this organization, and prove that this breaking is another part of their job. Usually, these state-organized crimes take place in different covert operations within numerous intelligence agencies. It may be some kind of piracy, assassination, and other violation of rules.
It is known that if a white-collar crime has a form of corporate crime, it may easily become another state crime with certain violations of several conventions from the Declaration of Human Rights. However, the main difference between state/state-organized crime and white-collar crime is that the former is all about some governmental affairs; and white-collar crime may touch upon any organization in any sphere and its consequences are not that severe as the ones connected to the state-organized crime.
Some of the noteworthy examples of a governmental political white-collar crime involving the executive branch
White-collar crime is one of the most burning problems in the United States. Political crimes are one of the components of such type of crime; however, it turns out to be rather difficult to give a clear definition of what political white-collar crime is all about. In fact, any kind of crime may be regarded as a political white-collar crime. It may be sexual harassment and speculation of tax money.
One of the examples of political white-collar crime was the Whitewater Scandal. Even if this crime did not influence considerably politics or Clinton’s duties, this crime left a serious step in the development of trust to politicians and demonstrated how weak responsibility and moral norms some politicians may have. So, the affairs, which took place at the beginning of the 1990s, were so difficult to obliterate, as they touched more on some moral issues, which should be accepted personally. Governmental crime is another form of white-collar crime, characterized by domestic focus and certain transnational dimensions.
The term crimes of globalization and how they are both similar to and different from other forms of White Collar Crime
Crimes of globalization are one of the hybrid forms of white-collar crime, which are usually neglected by criminologists. Some writers define crimes of globalization as some harmful consequences, which are inherent to policy decisions from high-level officials’ side in order to achieve positive outcomes of the case under consideration. It is also very important to admit that crimes of globalization are not always a kind of violation of the law. It is also not that significant to demonstrate the offender’s guilt.
As it was mentioned, crimes of globalization are consequences of the policies inherent to an international organization. One of the examples of such organizations may be the World Bank. This world organization is known for its paternalistic and secretive affairs, which aim to improve human lives. In spite of the fact that this bank does not want to do some harm to people, its functions turn out to be rather undemocratically organized, so that crimes of globalizations take place there.
The major difference that lies between white-collar crime and crimes of globalization is their outcomes. When we talk about crimes of globalization, we mean all those crimes, which aim to provide people with the necessary globalization. So, it can be rather predictable that numerous organizations like the World Bank can be blamed for numerous crimes of globalization, according to which they do certain harm to lots of people in many developing countries.
The finance crime and why finance crime is separated from corporate crime and occupational crime as a form of White Collar Crime
Financial crime is one of those things that may affect lots of people from different places during one and the same period of time. This type of crime may be in rather different forms: fraud, drug trafficking, or even people trafficking. Of course, many security systems try to create more and more difficult conditions for terrorists to commit their financial frauds. In general, financial crimes are defined as those crimes, which committed against someone’s property by means of unlawful conversions.
This type of crime may be compared with two other kinds of crimes: a corporate crime that is regarded as a crime committed by certain corporations or individuals and to an occupational crime that is regarded as a crime, committed by means of opportunities, which are created in the course of the certain legal occupation. These crimes may overlap because the representatives of these crimes should have high social status, but still, they have to be separated because the purposes of these crimes are quite different, the consequences of these crimes touch a different number of people, and people, who deal with white-collar crimes, should be only the representative from government.